Author: Patrick Long

I am a college student and avid outdoorsmen in the great state of Georgia. I killed my first deer at the young age of 5 with a .243. Since then i have hunted nearly every year. I love hunting whitetail, ducks, and turkey, but most of all I love to learn. My goal is to teach every single one of my readers something new in every piece of content I make. If I'm not outdoors, I am probably studying for my next big test, hanging out with my friends and family, or I am making content for the community around this blog. If you have any questions or would just like to strike up a conversation feel free to shoot me an email at

5 Deadly Diseases For Whitetail Deer

Whitetail populations are susceptible to a verity of diseases and parasites. Every year it seems that we have some type of outbreak that puts populations of deer around the country at risk. Although most diseases whitetails get are harmless to humans, knowing what these ailments look like could help you better manage your deer or avoid eating deer that you should not.

1) Hemorrhagic Disease (HD)

HD is the most common type of viral disease that affects whitetail and has multiple strains including Epizootic hemorrhagic disease (EHD), and Blue Tounge . This year, EHD has made a large outbreak and started a buzz, much like the CWD outbreak last year in 2018.

Hemorrhagic Disease is a viral infection spread to whitetail deer by small flys known as biting midges which are also called regional names such as sand gnats, sand flies, no-see-ums and punkies. These gnats are generally more abundant during droughts, or in areas with large amounts of mud. Once a deer is infected, it may or may not show symptoms. Some deer can carry the virus for months or years and not show symptoms, while others show symptoms within days.

Photo: Missouri University

These are the signs of HD according to Dr. Howarth of Iowa State University,

“In general, deer infected with EHD lose their appetite, lose their fear of people, grow weak, show excessive salivation, develop a rapid pulse, have a rapid respiration rate, show signs of a fever which include lying in bodies of water to reduce their body temperature, become unconscious, and have a blue tongue from the lack of oxygen in the blood”

For whitetails that survive HD, you can see signs of it on their hooves. While they have the disease, it interrupts their growth patterns and causes walls of there toes to slump off and grow irregularly. Photo: Virgina DNR

HD is not transferable to humans. So, the animal is safe to eat, but personally, I would not eat it if I did not have to. If you see an outbreak of HD on a property that you are managing the only choice you have is to let it run its course. As of 2019, there is not a cure for HD. Sadly, if your population of whitetail does contract the disease you can expect around 25%-30% death from the disease, although numbers as high as 50% have been reported.

Check out these 5 Whitetail Diseases that you could see this season!

2) Chronic Wasting Disease (CWD)

Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is a prion disease that affects elk or Wapiti, red deer, mule deer, black-tailed deer, white-tailed deer, Sika deer, reindeer, and moose. It has been found in some areas of North America, including Canada and the United States, Norway, and South Korea. It may take over a year before an infected animal develops symptoms, which can include drastic weight loss (wasting), stumbling, listlessness, abnormal behavior, and loss of bodily functions. CWD can affect animals of all ages and some infected animals may die without ever developing the disease. CWD spread through the contact of bodily fluids and is 100% fatal to animals and there are no treatments or vaccines. (Center for Disease Control)

“CWD belongs to a group of diseases known as transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs). Within this family of diseases, there are several other variants that affect domestic animals: scrapie, which has been identified in domestic sheep and goats for more than 200 years, bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) in cattle (also known as “mad cow disease”), and transmissible mink encephalopathy in farmed mink. ” (

As of 2019, there have not been any cases of Chronic Wasting Disease being transferred to humans. Although there have been other cases of CWD being transferred to primates that eat infected meat or come in contact with body fluids from the infected animal. Even though there have not been any reported cases in Humans, the World Health Organization has strongly suggested to not consume animals infected with Chronic Wasting Disease.

Hi, I’m Patrick, the sole author of Omega Outdoors. I work on this blog whenever I get a chance in between school and my different jobs, but I would greatly appreciate it if you subscribed to my email list so I can keep you updated my content and giveaways.

3) Bovine Tuberculosis

“Bovine tuberculosis (bovine Tb) is a disease found in mammals caused by the bacteria Mycobacterium bovis (M. bovis). In North America, bovine Tb is most commonly found in domestic cattle and captive and wild cervids (white-tailed deer, elk, etc.) and less commonly in other mammals such as raccoon, opossums, coyotes, and wild boars. ” (Perdue University)

Bovine Tb causes the animal to have issues with their respiratory system and can cause high fevers. The disease is spread through bodily secretions like urine, feces, blood, breast milk, or saliva. With the correct environment, the bacteria can live for months and infect mammals that come in direct contact with it. This is one reason that baiting deer in high-risk Tb locations has became illegal. The deer can feed at these piles and leave saliva on other bits of food which are then ingested by healthy whitetail.

Bovine Tuberculosis in a wild whitetail deer
Photo: Michigan DNR

While highly unlikely it is technically possible for humans to contract TB from Whitetails. If you harvest a whitetail in a TB prevalence zone, you should avoid eating organs and make sure the meat is cooked thoroughly with an internal temperature of at least 165 degrees F. This will kill all bacteria if the deer happens to be infected.

4) Cutaneous Fibroma / Deer Warts

Cutaneous Fibroma is a viral infection spread by insects that typically infects 0.4% – 2.4% of deer around the age of 2 years old (Journal of the American Veterinary Medical Association). They are brown/black lumps that grow on the deer but rarely grow beneath the skin.

Extreme Case of Deer Warts

Deer warts are a common occurrence throughout the country. Seemingly every population has seen them to some degree. Cutaneous Fibromas are harmless tumors that can grow on all parts of the body. The only way these become dangerous is if they begin to inhibit sight, breathing, eating or the ability to walk. Otherwise, these warts are harmless to the deer and can eventually go away.

Fibromas are the most reported deer illness and are seen all around the United States of America every year. Under normal circumstances, a hunter probably will not even see warts until further inspection after the kill. Not to worry, these Cutaneous Fibromas do not affect the edibility of the deer and are 100% harmless to humans, other than the gross aesthetic nature.

5) Brain Abscesses

A brain abscess is a bacterial infection that gets into a wound close to the head and makes its way to the brain, where it then begins to make pockets of puss that have nowhere to go. Many bacteria can cause this but typically this infection is caused by an Arcanobacterium Pyogenes. This type of bacteria is not uncommon and can live on the skin or gums of cervids. The bacteria enters through an open wound, which for whitetail bucks could be a scrape on a velvet antler, or through the pedicle (base of the antler) of a shed or damaged antler.

Photo: Missouri University

“Nearly 90 percent of all documented cases of brain abscesses have been from bucks, especially mature bucks greater than 3.5 years old,” (Chas Moore, Wildlife Biologist, with the Alabama Division of Wildlife and Freshwater Fisheries). When a whitetail gets a brain abscess, it is normally fatal. These abscesses are thought to be one of the main reasons for non-Human death among older bucks. Some symptoms of a brain abscess are: abnormal activity, loss of appetite, blindness, and fearlessness of humans or predators. They are basically just a pocked of puss endlessly growing in the deer’s brain, which causes immense pressure and can be very painful.

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Can Whitetail Deer See Orange?

Does wearing orange effect you hunt? Ever since wearing red or blaze orange became law in 1986, and later mandatory blaze orange in 1994, hunters have questioned if their game could see it or if it has a negative impact on the hunt; however, Whitetail and humans see colors differently and we use this fact to keep hunters protected from each other while also keeping them concealed in the woods.

In short, no whitetail deer cannot see the color orange. We know from research that whitetails’ eyes are constructed in a different manner from humans. Because of this, they see longer wavelengths of light differently. As a result, reds and oranges are perceived as browns and greys for whitetail. So, wearing orange in the woods is perfectly fine and you are still reasonably invisible to whitetail as long as you can control your movement. Although, shorter wavelengths of light, like blues, are enhanced and better seen by whitetails than humans.

Differences in eyesight between Whitetail and Humans

The obvious difference between human and whitetail vision is the positioning of our eyes. Human eyes are positioned so that we can look directly forward with a field of view of about 180 degrees. This gives us a large overlap between our two eyes which contributes to detailed depth perception and the ability to focus our eyesight in one area. Whitetails, however, have their eyes positioned, like other prey animals, more on the sides of their heads. This gravely increases their field of view to around 300 degrees. It is also the construction of the eye itself that separates human and whitetail vision. They have a larger cornea, which is the outside of the eye, this also aids their field of view and lets in more light. This gives whitetail the advantage of being able to see threats nearly all around them during all times of the day but reduces their ability to focus on one area in detail.

Photo: QDMA

The parts of your eyes that allow you to see are called photoreceptor cells. They sense different wavelengths of light and send electrical impulses to your brain. You use these impulses to interpret reality with objects and colors. The two main types of photoreceptor cells are rods and cones. Cones are designed to function in bright light while rods are used for vision in low-light conditions. The differences between human and whitetail photoreceptors make us interpret light, and therefore color, in different ways.

“Deer can discriminate among wavelengths (i.e., perceive color), as demonstrated by operant conditioning methods in pen studies (Zacks and Budde 1983), as well as physiological studies of the retinal photoreceptors (Jacobs et al. 1994). Deer are dichromatic, meaning their vision is characterized by two cone types with different spectral sensitivities (Jacobs et al. 1994). In contrast, humans have trichromatic color vision. The range of colors dichromats perceive is much more limited since they rely on two spectral sensitivities instead of three like a trichromat (Carroll et al. 2001: Figure 1.1).”

Miller, 2013

Protanopia – Red/Green Color Blindness

Humans are trichromatic which means we can see all three primary colors: red, blue, and green. We can see all of these colors and the colors they make when they mix. Whitetail are dichromatic, so they only see two of the three primary colors along with their mixes. Due to this whitetail see blues and greens but not reds. The way a whitetail sees light is best summed up with the term Protanopia. If we were talking about a Human, this would be a case where they would have deformed or missing cones that are required to see longer wavelengths of light, like red. However, thanks to research we know that whitetails do not have these cones at all. As a result, people or animals that see in this way are unable to distinguish between colors in the green-yellow-red section of the spectrum. So, when you see red, deer see a brown color. When you see orange, deer see more of a grey color.

Color Spectrum

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What About the Research?

So how do we know for a fact that whitetails are dichromatic? Well, there was a research project carried out at the University of Georgia by a graduate student named Elizabeth Ashley Miller under the direction of Dr. Karl V. Miller, and Dr. Robert J. Warren. To test the visual aptitudes of white-tailed deer, Miller used a “deer-training-apparatus” (DTA). They used this apparatus to supply a stimulus to the whitetail and record the reaction to said stimuli.

Miller describes the DTA as,

“The DTAs present two stimuli over separate food troughs to a single deer (Figure 2). Deer select a stimulus by attempting to feed in the corresponding trough below. An infrared sensor in front of the trough detects an animal’s choice of a stimulus, and the decision is automatically recorded. The DTAs automatically dispense the food reward and also limit access to feed when incorrect decisions are made. The DTAs were initially used in experiments to delineate the visual threshold of deer. The positive stimuli were lights of varying wavelength and intensity. The wavelengths selected for study were based upon the findings of Jacobs et al. 6 (1997). Stimuli were presented for eight seconds after a bell rang. If the deer responded to the positive stimulus, the doors to the feed troughs stayed open for one minute, allowing the deer to feed. When the deer selected the trough that was not associated with the positive stimuli, the doors shut immediately. This research demonstrated that the DTA is an effective and efficient method by which to train white-tailed deer. Furthermore, it was used to determine that the relative spectral sensitivity of deer is comparable to the photoreceptic sensitivity of deer with only one variation from the previous literature at 590 nm (Cohen 2011).”

Miller, 2013
Deer Training Apparatus

Miller used this device with seven does over the course of a month. She recorded the data over this time and was able to conclude that the DTA was an appropriate system to use for testing the senses of whitetail. The tests conducted proved that whitetails are dichromatic by observing the reactions from presenting different stimuli in the form of colored images on the LCD screens.

Why are Hunters Required to Wear Orange?

Hunting can be dangerous if not done correctly, after all in the ideal situation, something dies. It is best to make sure that that something is not you. That means taking the extra precaution and following the laws to keep yourself safe. In the United States of America during the year 1986, wearing blaze orange or red in the woods during gun season became a mandated law. Later in 1994, it was switched to only mandate blaze orange.

But why? Accidental shootings in the woods happen. Ever since this law, coupled with hunter safety courses, they have been on a steady decline. According to the IHEA-USA (International Hunters Education Association), the number of fatal accidental shootings has dwindled to under 100 cases per year. But low numbers do not mean that it is not important to wear your orange, especially if you are hunting public land.

The Best Way to Camouflage Yourself for Whitetail

So as we talked about, deer see in blues and greens. We can use this small amount of information to conceal ourselves to the best of our ability. You always need to wear green camouflage but stay away from blues. Before my research on this topic, I wore blue jeans underneath a thin pair of leaf pants. Well as it turns out, these are easily visible to deer so wear darker or green pants and wear your orange as well. Keeping your hands and face covered will also help, especially if you have a lighter complexion.


Another question I have seen is, “if whitetail cannot see the color orange, then why do we make orange camouflage?”. Well, this is for the same reason we make green camouflage, you do not just sit in your stand with a solid green shirt, you wear a camouflage that breaks up your silhouette. Although the number one rule of staying hidden in the woods is, no matter how well you are camouflaged or how well you conceal your scent, your movement will be the first thing to give you away. Honestly, you can be pretty lazy when it comes to your camouflage and wear blue jeans and a t-shirt, as long as you control your movement well and conceal your scent, you probably will not get busted.

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The Whitetail Rut | What, Why, and When is it?

The whitetail rut, also known as the best time of year. We wait all year to be able to get into the woods during this prime time, so we can get those big bucks and make stories that we can tell a thousand times over again. But do you know the specifics of the rut? What exactly is the rut? Why is there a rut and what triggers it? When is the rut, or how long is it? We will explore these questions and see how we can use them to your advantage in order to make you a better hunter.

Photo: Deer & Deer Hunting

The rut is known as the mating season for mammals. Unlike humans, all animals cannot mate year round so they have a strategic season, normally during fall, so offspring can be born during springtime when food is plentiful. The rut is triggered by the photoperiod, which is the ratio of daylight hours to darkness hours throughout the day. For whitetail deer, the rut starts in late October and ends in early December, but it can vary by a few days between populations. We can also break the rut down into different phases: pre-rut, early rut, full rut, post-rut, and the second rut.

What is The Rut

According to biologists, the rut is a broad term for the mating period of mammals. We mostly only hear of the term “rut” when we are talking about members of the Cervidae family, such as deer, elk, or moose. The rut causes males of the species to increase testosterone levels, this increases their aggression and interest in females. During the rut, males perform many displays or actions in order to entice females. This causes males to become more active and reckless, putting themselves in situations they normally would not.

In whitetails we see that they will fight each other, make a scrape or rub in order to spread their sent and unconsciously start to swell their necks throughout the rut in order to look bigger and more intimidating. They will also start to heavily urinate on their tarsal glands causing staining and a strong scent.



It turns out that there is much more to the rut than just the time of year! Check out this total guide to the whitetail rut from Omega Outdoors.

Why is There a Rut

Most every species has a rut, but why? Humans mate year round and produce offspring year round as well. What keeps other animals from doing the same thing? My theory, the seasons and temperatures. If a species gave birth during fall or winter, odds are it will be very difficult for that baby to survive the winter. Especially in deer where fawns move around, but also hide in one spot for hours. This behavior could lead to many offspring freezing to death. Not to mention the availability of food throughout the winter is significantly less that it is in the spring. So because of those factors, the odds of survival are much higher if a species give birth during a warm and fruitful season, also known as spring. So The rut is timed perfectly to accommodate the gestation period of a whitetail doe, which is about 7 1/2 months long.

Hi, I’m Patrick, the sole author of Omega Outdoors. I work on this blog whenever I get a chance in between school and my different jobs, but I would greatly appreciate it if you subscribed to my email list so I can keep you updated my content and giveaways.

When is The Rut

Generally the entire rut will go from October to December. There are also a few different phases to the rut as well, and we see different behavior in each phase. This means we need to hunt each of them different and study our deer to see how they are behaving. What are these phases and how can you use them to your advantage?

Phases of The Rut


This period is around the second week of October, to the third week of October. During this period bucks start to roam into their fall ranges and patterns. they start to change their behaviors slightly and will cover more ground. Bucks are still in bachelor groups, and does are still in family groups. The two groups will often mix together at food sources. Buck testosterone levels are slightly increasing.

Bucks are not chasing quite yet. These bucks are laying down a lot of sign through rubs and scrapes. Hunting pressure has likely pushed these bucks back into more wooded areas that are safe and have plenty of food.

It is important when you are scouting to find an area that will fit this bill. It will likely be a secluded area with a few trails and acorn trees. They love the thick areas, so if you can find one with a good about of acorns and general deer sign then that is a good spot for pre-rut hunting.

Early Rut

This period is the last week of October and maybe the first day or so of November. Some does are starting their estrus cycles, and bucks are breaking up from their bachelor groups and are becoming more reckless. They are experiencing high levels of testosterone .

There is a heavy amount of buck sign now. Bucks are starting to move much more but they are still not chasing quite yet. You may see a young buck chasing but not any bruisers. Bedding areas are probably your best bet for a good hunting spot during this week.

Full Rut

The best two weeks of the year, The first two weeks of November. Bucks are going crazy, and chasing does hard. Buck testosterone is at its peak, most does are in or coming into estrus. Bucks increase their ranges even further and are moving at all hours of the day.

A good strategy during this period is to hunt tree lines and trails, doe bedding areas are also an effective strategy. Now your rattles and grunt calls will be really effective. This is the best time to be in the woods and is your best chance of getting a nice buck.

Post Rut

This period occurs during the last week of November. The rut as a whole is slowing down and most does are already bred, but some does will come into estrus during this week. The deer are feeling a lot of pressure from hunters around this time, they are trying to stay in the safest places possible.

Buck activity is slowing down and they will not come out as much in the daylight. Bucks will be harder to hunt than the last two weeks, but bedding areas that are in thick secluded areas are a good place to look, but your normal rut stands will still be really effective.

Second Rut

Hunting is much tougher after the post-rut, the second rut occurs during the first two weeks of December. Mature does that were not bred are now cycling back into estrus, as well as young does that are now big enough to be bred. You may get a few days that will remind you of the full rut, many of the same tactics will work once more.


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Why Do Bucks Rub Trees?

When roaming through your neck of the woods, you have probably seen a tree with the bark rubbed off of one side. Depending on where you live, this is likely to be a type of deer. Have you ever stopped to think why deer make these, or how you could use rubs to your advantage as a hunter? While this post will focus on whitetail deer, many members of the deer family Cervidae also make rubs in a similar fashion.

Why Would Deer Make Rubs?

Whitetails rub trees for two main reasons, during the pre-rut bucks do this to remove the velvet from their antlers around early september. The second reason is to secret their scent in the area. This is a act of dominance showing other bucks what he is capable of. Because of this, frequency of rubs sharply increases during the rut, and studies show that dominate bucks make three times more rubs that younger bucks.

Photo: Deer & Deer Hunting

Do you know exactly why whitetails rub trees? Check out this post about rubs from Omega Outdoors.

What is a “Rub”?

A rub is when a male whitetail uses his antlers to scratch the bark of a tree. This is an intentional act from the deer. They are very thorough and may scratch all the way around the tree or just one side. During September or pre-rut the purpose of this is to get the velvet off the deer’s antlers once they start to harden. During the Rut the purpose is to secret their scent on the tree and surrounding area, they are basically saying ” Hey ladies I am here!”. While simultaneously saying “Hey other bucks look how much I can tear this tree up, that could be you”.

Velvet Coming off the Antlers, Photo: Bruce MacQueen

When do Bucks Make Rubs?

When deer antlers start to harden, it does not take very long for them to get rid of the velvet, maybe a few days at most. This process could start around late August and will probably be over for your local population by mid September. So you will start seeing rubs around this time frame, with an increased frequency during the rut.

Which deer make rubs?

While all bucks will rub to remove their velvet, during the rut, the majority of rubs will be made by more mature bucks rather than yearlings. In a population with a good amount of mature bucks, young bucks aging 1-2 may not get as many opportunities to mate and will likely get bullied around by older and bigger bucks. That being said, rubbing trees is an act of dominance around a certain area. So, it only makes sense that studies show mature (dominate) bucks are three times as likely to make rubs than younger bucks.


How to tell the difference between new and old rubs?

A common mistake for novice hunters is to mistake a year old rub for a new one. While it could prove useful to see old rubs, we are generally interested in the recent ones that tell us where the deer are this year. Older rubs will be darker and greyed out while new rubs will be light brown or whitish with a bit of moisture to it.

New Rub, Photo:

What Makes a Good Rub?

As a general rule of thumb, the bigger the better. Smaller rubs can be on one side of the tree, but the holy grail of rubs is one that is rubbed all the way around, a rub like this says there is a buck coming back to this spot often. Some rubs can be on trees that are up to a foot around. Most of the rubs like this are communal. So this is a regularly visited rub by different bucks and could be a good place to do some extra scouting. Many times you will know a good rub when you see it just by sheer size, but another variable to think about is quantity. If there is a area around ten yards with multiple rubs, there is a good chance that is a high traffic area that you should definitely consider.

How Big is a Deer From The Rub?

As we discussed, all bucks rub trees to remove velvet; however, most of them can tear up the middle of a tree and look like a giant buck to the untrained eye. The majority of the damage done is going to be from the two browtines the buck has. These tines are the closest together and are around the same size as the tree that they would be rubbing. So just keep it in the back of your mind that a 2-1/2-year old deer can tear a tree apart as well as a bigger buck.

Do not give up, there is one difference between the two. While the middle is likely torn up in both cases, a mature deer rack has one advantage here that can help us differentiate between trophy and small racks. HEIGHT. Look at the very top of the rub, and the branches close to the ground. These can have small nicks or cuts, they will not be very large but only deer with taller racks can reach these spots, so the taller the nicks the taller (and bigger) the buck.

Around three feet is a normal height for a rub, if you are using this method try to look around four or four and a half feet tall.

Hi, I’m Patrick, the sole author of Omega Outdoors. I work on this blog whenever I get a chance in between school and my different jobs, but I would greatly appreciate it if you subscribed to my email list so I can keep you updated my content and giveaways.

When Should I Hunt a Rub?

If you have identified a large rub and it is close to a few trails or a major trail, that is probably a good spot to hunt. Throw some corn out 10 yards away and see what happens (if your state allows it).

Better yet if you have found a cluster of rubs, close to a food source or major trail, I would mark that down as a stand location. Some hunters prefer to hunt in one spot for their entire season, but if you like to move around, Going from rub location to rub location can be a viable option for you.

What about the tree?

There is no doubt that the tree gets the short end of the *stick here. If it is only a small rub then the tree will likely recover but with a nasty scar and probably will lean to one side. If the rub is all the way around the tree has a really good chance of dying.

Thanks for reading my article I hoped you enjoyed it and learned something you didn’t already know. If you like my content subscribe for my weekly update.


Can Hunting Be A Job?

Everyone dreams of doing what they love for a living. If you could get paid to be a hunter would you do it? Of course! But it is a lot harder than it may sound. Many professionals in the industry have spent years working very hard for little or no pay. So if you are in it for the money and not because you just deeply enjoy the outdoors and the community around it, you are looking in the wrong place.

The dream job of getting paid a decent living to only hunt does not exist. There are, however, many jobs in the outdoor industry. The outdoor industry is broad but you could find careers related to hunting, fishing, conservation, videography, marketing, and biology. The opportunities are endless and the only limitation is you and the amount of work you are willing to put in.

The Tv Hunter – Being Realistic

If you are here searching how easy it is to start your own hunting show, the answer is not hard at all. But you will not make very much if any money. If you think about some of the “celebrity” tv show hunters and how their business plan is actually laid out, they make their money from sponsorships or selling their own products. The hunting is just entertainment so they hope they can grab your attention long enough to advertise to you. This market is extremely competitive and flooded. If you wanted to buy a set of arrowheads or new arrows or maybe a new set of hunting boots, think of how many brands you actually have to choose from for those products. Now think of the following you have to build to just get people to watch your show. This would take 10+ years of very hard work with zero profit just to start making anything at all, but hey, if you are willing to do it nothing is impossible.

Deerhunter TV

Have you ever wanted to hunt for a living? I have, check out this post on the topic from Omega Outdoors.

Getting Started In The Outdoor Industry

What do you actually have to do to get started in the outdoor industry? Get Involved! Be active on social media, go to trade shows and community events. Do not forget about job sites like Indeed or Glassdoor. Search for the companies that you like or would like to work for and see if they have any job postings. Even if it is not something that you are crazy about, getting into a company and making connections can boost your success and opportunity for the job you really want. This advice also stands for any other industry as well, you just have to put yourself out there and sometimes even work for free just to get in and get experience and connections.

Six Job Examples In The Outdoor Industry

Property Management

Being a property manager is an amazing job for someone who loves wildlife. Technically a property manager can manage anything from wildlife to agriculture, or eco-tourism. With one quick search, I found a listing on for a position labeled ” Whitetail Outfitter & Ranch Operations”. This type of job is for a veteran outdoorsman that knows all about the outdoors and how to handle it.

Here is the description of the job I mentioned: ” role requires the individual to have significant deer, and turkey hunting, guiding, and calling experience. They are responsible for all aspects of the hunting experience; including, but not limited to: deer habitat management, deer stand management, food plot implementation, and management, pre and post-hunt experience management, game processing, significant people skills and ability to interact with guests, demonstrate good hunting morals, ethics, and knowledge of local and federal regulations. Outfitters are required to interact and guide guests in shooting, fishing, and other miscellaneous event activities. Outfitters are also responsible for the facility, vehicle, and all general upkeep, cleanliness, and maintenance. ”


  • Average Salary: $107,798/ yr –
  • Education required: Highschool, Some college preferred, Extensive wildlife knowledge.
  • Housing included
Northern Sikes Guided Goose Hunt

Hunting Guide

A hunting guides job is to take the customer to a successful location and guide them to a successful harvest. They make sure everything is carried out in the proper way, including but not limited to: ensuring all harvests are legal, firearm safety, locating wildlife, upkeeping camp, and providing a fulfilling experience for the customer. Many hunting guides own their own property but is possible to work for a property manager and carry out hunts on their behalf. Many managers hire guides to take customers out on paid hunts not only to increase revenue but also harvest mature deer from the population.



  • Average Pay: $1,500 – $2,500/Month
  • Education Required: Hunting Guide School
  • Housing and Food Included

Wildlife Biologist

If you are a scientifically inclined person that loves the outdoors, you may want to consider being a wildlife biologist. A wildlife biologists duties can be very broad depending on the employer and the location. They perform research and help better manage wildlife populations. Wildlife biologists can work for private parties but many of them work at the state or federal level where their findings can influence regulations and seasons.

Wildlife biologists also tend to specialize in a specific species. So you may spend years studying bears of Idaho, tracking these animals and analyzing the data flowing in from hunters. You may add collars to captured animals to track their movement or study food plots to see how animals react to certain foods and which food groups can best benefit them. These are just some examples and every job will vary, but it is a hands-on outdoor job and if that is what you are passionate about you should go for it.


  • Average Pay: $51,483 –
  • Education required: Bachelor’s degree in Biology


What the heck is an influencer? An influencer is anyone that builds a following in a certain niche, ours being hunting and the outdoors. Influencers use social media to share content with others who like what they like. This is not an easy job. Large influencers have a lot of influence (hence the name) in their industries, and companies see them as an amazing marketing opportunity. So they may pay a certain influencer to use their product and tell their followers about their experience. To be an influencer you have to really love your industry and be in it for the long run because you will be in the trenches working really hard for years before you start to make any money.

The best thing about being an influencer is you can do it on your own time, as much, or as little as you want. However, your income will directly correlate with the amount of time and effort you put into your craft. You also do not need any formal education for this job and could even do it on the side after your boring nine to five job.

How do you make money as an influencer? Influencers have multiple ways of monetizing their audience, and they should use more than one method. You can make youtube videos which generate ad revenue, you can do sponsorships on social media or podcasts, or you can place ads on a blog (like this one)

Wildlife Conservationist

A wildlife conservationists job is to protect wildlife and the habitat that supports it. They work to make sure the ecosystem is in good health and not in danger to any diseases or invasive species. They will also check the soil to see if there is possibly any pollution or runoff affecting the area.

Another responsibility of a wildlife conservationist is to advocate for wildlife and the environment. They also educate the public. As a matter of fact, 79% of wildlife conservationists work for government agencies ( where they can better communicate with the public about these topics. While working for these government agencies, many conservationist advocate for things like green energy, climate change, national forests, habitat conservations, and regulations relating to wildlife and the environment.


  • Average Pay: $63,800/yr –
  • Education Required: Bachelors degree in wildlife biology, agricultural science, or environmental sciences
Oklahoma Game Warden Ryan Walker

Game Warden/ Conservation Officer

Game wardens do enforce laws in the wilderness to ensure the safety of the habitat, but that is not their only job. They actually do a lot more than you may think. Game wardens are responsible for issuing licenses ti hunters, running hunter safety and education classes, performing search and rescue, provide backup to law enforcement, conduct investigations of game harvesting operations, and also maintaining the census of wildlife populations. These are just the bulk of their duties, as with any job other duties may arise.

Obviously, this is a hands-on job for outdoor lovers. You are outside in the thick of every situation, and you are the determining factor of how it all goes down. If you are instrested in this career I would highly suggest checking out


  • Average Pay: $49,400/yr –
  • Education required: Bachelors degree in one of the following fields,
    • Wildlife and/or Natural Resource Conservation
    • Wildlife Ecology
    • Biological Science (Specifically Wildlife Biology)
    • Environmental Science
    • Fish and Wildlife Management
    • Criminal justice

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Complete Guide To Aging Whitetail Deer

Aging a whitetail in the field can be an important aspect of your hunt. Trying to hold out for a mature buck has become an increasingly popular management strategy. Every single buck is different though. Many of the attributes that we will soon learn that help us age a buck, can vary from deer to deer. This is why many hunters struggle to age deer correctly; although, most anyone can tell a mature deer apart from a yearling, let’s dive into how to judge the middle stages.

What do we use to Judge age?

To quickly judge the age of a deer in the field we can use four major attributes, the body/estimated weight of a deer, the belly and how low it hangs, how thick the neck is, and lastly if the antlers are spread outside the ears or not. It is recommended to not look at the antlers themselves to determine the age, focus mainly on the body. The bigger the neck, lower the belly, the older the deer. Make sure to follow through on your estimate after the shot with a jaw bone method (seen below).

Mature vs young deer body size, Photo: Startribune

Choosing the Right Picture on Cam

If you are not in the field and are judging bucks off of a trail camera picture, it is very important to choose the right pictures and not just ONE picture. You need pictures where you can clearly see all the physical features of the buck. We will use his features to judge him and choosing a picture with a bad angle or shadows can complicate the aging process. The QDMA ( Quality Deer Management Association) posted this picture to show the ideal stance of a buck.

Photo: QDMA

Do you know how to age a whitetail just by looking at its body? Or how to age them by their teeth? Check out this total guide from Omega Outdoors.

The Body

When judging the age of a deer you really should act like they have no antlers at all, and just focus on the body. If you look at a young deer you can really see just how slender they are. They are very sleek and skinny looking, deer take a few years to fill out. Just like humans, you can see the difference in the weight and muscle mass between a 13-year-old boy and a 25-year-old man. Year after year deer start to pack on the pounds, so it is not unusual to see a super skinny young deer. When you see a mature deer, around 4 1/2, there will be no doubt that you know he is a mature buck just by how big his body is. A mature buck that is over 200lbs will appear to have shot legs with his belly hanging down. His neck will look short and fat.

The Belly

Hanging belly, Photo: Kruger Farms

If whitetail have good available nutrition, over the years they will pack on the pounds. Fatter deer are more likely to be older. Just looking at the belly you can tell a young deer from a mature deer quite easily. Young deer will have level bellies or even curved upward. While a mature deer will have a lower or even hanging belly, the lower the better. This causes old deer to appear short or stubby.

Thick swollen neck

The Neck

The neck is one of the first things to look at when aging a buck. Combined with the muscle on the shoulders, the size of the neck can be a good sign of age. How swollen a buck’s neck is can also change with the season. During the rut, the neck swells up to show dominance. Around age 4 1/2 a bucks neck and shoulder muscles have fully developed and will appear to be short and thick. While in young deer the neck appears sleek and slender.


Hi, I’m Patrick, the sole author of Omega Outdoors. I work on this blog whenever I get a chance in between school and my different jobs, but I would greatly appreciate it if you subscribed to my email list so I can keep you updated my content and giveaways.

What to expect at each age

1 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

At this age, bucks are just starting to grow their first set of antlers and are probably the easiest deer to age. They are long and lanky and look like they are all legs. They are very slim with a small waist. These deer have a distinct line of separation between their neck and shoulders with little muscle definition. Most of the little weight they do have will be shifted towards the back of the deer. They will also have very light staining of the tarsal glands. At this age, if you were to strip away their antlers it would be difficult to tell a yearling buck apart from a doe.

Yearling bucks antlers are most likely small and are inside the width of the ears, but on well-managed properties, yearlings can be larger and have a respectable rack. That is why we try to disregard the antlers and focus on body features instead.

2 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

These bucks are still slender looking with a thin waist. They have developed some muscle in their shoulders along with a little swelling in the neck but not very much. Their belly will still make a straight line and will not hang down. Most of their weight is still in their back half. With good nutrition, their antlers can be as wide or slightly wider than their ears. They likely have small mass but should be showing the framework of how their rack will look in years to come. These bucks can have moderate staining in their tarsal glands during the rut, especially if only a few mature bucks are in the population.

3 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

For these bucks, their legs are finally the right length and they have built some muscle in the shoulders and torso. These bucks are still somewhat lean but are also built, so they are small and fast while also being big and strong. These bucks are close to their prime and have a lot of testosterone flowing and tend to have a badass teenager attitude which a lot of the time gets them killed. Their belly is still straight and they still have a defining line separating their neck and shoulders. Many of these bucks are starting to develop a very nice set of antlers. They should be outside the ears and starting to accrue a nice amount of mass. According to the QDMA, “most bucks have achieved 50 to 75 percent of their antler-growth potential” by this stage.

This is the average age a buck makes it to in the wild. Most unmanaged properties (especially public lands) do not have many bucks past this age. This is mainly due to their hormones and attitudes at this stage. It is bucks like these that can teach you about the trouble that chasing women can make.

4 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

After 3 1/2 it gets much harder to tell the exact age in the field, but it is still very possible. 4 1/2 is the age most management systems believe that hunters should harvest bucks. At this age, bucks are very developed throughout the body and they are in their prime. Their legs now appear to short for their bodies. The bucks shoulders are filled out, their neck is much bigger and swells during the rut due to increased testosterone levels. You can no longer see a defined line between the neck and brisket, they are now one mass. Their belly will not hang by much but they will not be completely flat. Now you can see significant staining on the tarsal glands as well.

According to RealTree “By this time in their life, bucks will display 80 to 90 percent of their antler’s potential”. Bucks by now have large antlers and a large amount of mass. Bucks in this age range account for many of the trophies taken.

5 1/2 – 6 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

Bucks rarely get past 5 years old in free range areas. These bucks are as big as they are going to get and if you are lucky enough to take a buck that makes it to this age you will be able to immediately tell that this is a mature deer. Deer at this age regardless of antler size are a true trophy, these bucks have been around the block a time or two and have most likely outsmarted or barely escaped a hunter before. If you have ever heard of the term “roman nose” these are the bucks they are talking about. The bucks nose begins to round off as he gets older and looks less pointy like a doe.

Now their bellies are starting to sag, the back may even sway down. The chest is deeper and larger, and the brisket may sag as low as the stomach line. The neck is extremely large and swollen. The legs appear very short compared to the rest of the body and there is very heavy staining on the tarsal glands.

7 1/2 – 8 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

You can think of these deer as the elderly old men of the deer world. For deer to be this old is very rare. These deer are on the decline and are losing weight. Their antlers will start to get smaller and they will become less active and probably will not chase does, and if they do, they will not chase as hard as a younger buck. A chin flap may also be present as the deer shrinks from its former size.

To help you remember all these rules The QDMA has a poster with examples that you can get here from Amazon.

The Follow-up – Aging Whitetail By Teeth

It is very important to check your age estimates after you take the shot. This way you can audit your own performance and better manage your property.


Where do you start?

Aging deer by the teeth is a game of elimination. The whole concept is that if this jaw passes certain criteria then it must be older than X amount of years. We will use two processes in this technique, tooth replacement, and tooth wear. during these processes, we will use the number of adult teeth coupled with the amount of wear on the molars to get an accurate estimate of the deers’ age.

Tooth Replacement

Just like humans, a whitetail has baby teeth that fall out and get replaced periodically. An adult whitetail has six teeth on each jaw, three premolars, and three molars. These are the teeth we will be looking at to assess age. Using this method we can quickly tell the difference between a fawn, a 1 1/2-year-old, and a 2 1/2 & older whitetail.


Judging a fawn is the most simple of the ages. Deer are born with three temporary teeth and one molar. The other two teeth are soon to come around the age of 1 1/2. So easily enough, if a jaw has less than six teeth it is a fawn.

1 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

A 1 1/2 deer has grown six molars on each side. You can tell a jaw belongs to a 1 1/2-year-old deer is by his third premolar. The third premolar will still be a baby tooth and have three cusps to it. if you can verify that it has three cusps, you can confirm it is a 1 1/2-year-old whitetail.

1 1/2 year old whitetail jaw bone
Photo: Wisconsin DNR

2 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

Much like the last strategy, check that the jaw has six teeth. Then go to the third premolar and check if it only has two cusps. If your deer only has two cusps on his third premolar you can confirm the whitetail is at least 2 1/2 years old.

To get a visual representation of this information the QDMA has some really good videos on this topic.

Tooth Wear

Using the tooth wear method you can tell the difference between 3 1/2-year-old deer all the way up to 6 + years old. This technique looks at the enamel(white outer layer) and dentine(dark inner layer) of the whitetails fourth molar to start. We use the fourth molar in this case because it is the oldest tooth the deer has. The main question we will be asking is how wide is the dentine strip on the TOP of the crest compared to the outer layer of enamel.

2 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

If we have concluded that a deer is at least 2 1/2 using the tooth replacement strategy, we can now look at the wear of the fourth molar to confirm it is 2 1/2 and not older. We can see an inner strip of dark dentine and we can ask the question, is the inner strip on dentine twice as thick as the outer strip of enamel? If the answer is no, then your whitetail is 2 1/2 years old.

3 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

Using the same strategy on the fourth molar, we can ask is the dentine or dark material twice as thick as the outer layer of enamel? If the answer is yes, the deer is at least 3 1/2 years old. We then have to slide over to the fifth tooth and ask the same question again. If your answer is no then you can confirm your deer to be 3 1/2 years of age.

4 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

Now we are on the fifth molar, asking is the strip of dark dentine on the top of the cusp twice as thick as the enamel next to it? If your answer is yes, then the deer is at least 4 1/2 year old. Now we go to the sixth and last tooth. We ask the same question and if your answer is no, then you can confirm your deer to be 4 1/2 years of age.

5 1/2 Year Old Whitetail Deer

If you get to the last molar and ask the same question, Is the dentine twice as wide as a strip of enamel, and your answer is yes, then the animal is at least 5 1/2 years old.

6 1/2 + Year Old Whitetail Deer

After your deer jaw has passed all the criteria to be at least 5 1/2 years old, we can start looking at the fourth molar again. We then ask a new question. Is the fourth tooth beginning to flatten out or dish? if the answer is yes, then the whitetail is at least 6 1/2 years old.

After 6 1/2 this method loses its reliability, and aging up to 6 1/2 is adequate for most management strategies. However, any deer that is 6 1/2 years of age or older, regardless of antler size is a true trophy that anyone would be proud of.

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Can Whitetail Be Totally Black?

Melanistic whitetails are the absolute rarest form of whitetail known; Although, a few hunters in parts of Texas have actually had the chance to harvest these animals. Truth be told, not very much is known about melanistic whitetails, while experts believe the genetic mutations that cause albinoism actually reduces the survival rate of the animal due to predators, melanistic deer are believed to be the opposite.

What is Melanism?

Melanism is the complete opposite of albinism. In albinism the pigment melanin is completely absent, in this circumstance, there is an excess of melanin. According to, “Melanism is a condition in which a bodily part is morphologically dark due to the unusually high deposition of melanin. Melanin is a dark pigment produced by the specialized cells called melanocytes. This pigment attributes to the dark coloration of the hair, eyes, skin, plumage, pelage, and other bodily parts of a living organism”. The word melanism is derived from the Greek word μελανός.

Have you ever seen a totally black whitetail?! Me either, check this out!

What Causes Melanism?

Melanism is a random mutation that can occur in many types of animals. It is believed to be a mutation of the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R). Just like albinism, Melanism is a recessive gene, so the gene will likely not be passed down, but it is not impossible.


Survival Impact

Mutations happen all the time in all organisms. They are a large part of natural selection and evolution. When animals have a mutation that is beneficial to their survival rate, and therefore their breeding rate, it tends to stick around. Being melanistic is not a giant game changer for whitetails from a survival standpoint, if it was, they would all be melanistic. It is possible that being melanistic could give whitetails a slight advantage but this would be negligible. Whitetails are already fairly well camouflaged for their environments so we do not see large populations of black whitetails across the United States.


While everyone has heard of albino whitetails, different reports claim that their rarity is between 1 in 20,000-100,000. While chances of a piebald whitetail being born are believed to be 1 in 1000.

Brooke Bateman 2016

That being said, the chances of a deer being born melanistic are considerably less than that of an albino. So small in fact I could not even find a general stat for their numbers. Melanistic deer are not harvested every year; however, in 2016 a young girl named Brooke Bateman harvested a wide melanistic buck off their 1,800-acre lease deer lease in Stephens Texas, one of the few ever recorded. That year, Texas harvested 600,000 whitetails, while according to the QDMA The United States as a whole recorded over 6,000,000 whitetails harvested.

Melanistic Deer Distribution

Texas January 3rd, 2004

Melanistic deer have been sighted across the United States. Some of the documented states include Mississippi, Michigan, Virginia, Pennsylvania, Texas, and South Carolina. The largest population seems to be in Texas. A 1999 study by Texas Tech University professors Dr. John T. Baccus and John C. Posey found that in a southwest region close to the Edwards Plateau Ecological Region, melanism had an incidence rate of 8.5%. The reasoning behind this concentration is still unknown. It is possible that the dark color helps them better camouflage themselves against predators, aiding natural selection.

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19 Essential Items For Your 2019 Whitetail Hunting Pack

What Items Should I Always Have In My Hunting Pack?

Every hunter has a basic load out of items that they make sure to bring every single trip. In this list, we make sure to cover every item you will need in the woods and in your pursuit of happiness. If you don’t already have a good pack and find your self asking ” what backpack should I use for hunting?” well our suggestion is the Timber Hawk Kill-shot Backpack.

Here are Our Top 19 Items to Pack For 2019

1. Skinning Knife

We have all been in that situation after you have got a deer on the ground and go after your Skinning Knife and you left it at home… A Skinning Knife is one of the basic necessities for a hunt. obviously, you won’t be using this in the stand but after your successful hunt, you will defiantly need a high-quality knife that can Hold a Real Edge.

2. Flashlight

Leaving for a hunt without a Flashlight is one sure way to derail your hunt. Hopefully, you got up on time and are headed to the woods before daylight. On the walk in you will definitely need a Good Flashlight.

Photo: Primos Hunting

We recommend a flashlight with an integrated Blood Light for when you shoot that big buck close to sunset.

A Flashlight will be an even larger asset on the walkout from the stand. The last thing you want to do is to get lost after a long day in the woods.

3. Binoculars

One thing you definitely need is an advantage in optics. If you are bow hunting this is even more crucial because you do not have a good scope to look through. Binoculars are useful for looking over fields and through the woods in your stand.

Most seasoned hunters will tell you, it can be difficult to see slow-moving deer far away or even deer in a farmed field. Deer can hide in plain sight in fields and a pair of good binoculars can give you that edge you need.

Check out this complete list of 19 things you will need for a hunting trip in 2019 from Omega Outdoors! I need to get a few of these.

4. Utility Knife

Stat Gear Utility Knife

Whether you are on a hunt or just a walk through the woods, something you should never leave without is a Good Knife. What I call a utility knife a knife that you can use in any situation and not just for skinning. I always carry one in my pack no matter what, I do not always use it but it is nice to have if you do need it. I also recommend getting a Knife with a Firestarter as well as an added layer of preparation.

Hi, I’m Patrick, the sole author of Omega Outdoors. I work on this blog whenever I get a chance in between school and my different jobs, but I would greatly appreciate it if you subscribed to my email list so I can keep you updated my content and giveaways.

5. Gloves

Unless your hunting in 70-degree weather, a pair of gloves is something you definitely need to pack. I normally have two pair, one light pair and one heavier pair for the really cold days. Keeping your hands warm is more important than you may realize. Other than cold hands being uncomfortable if you can not feel your hands’ chances are you can not make a well placed shot on that Boone and Crockett you’re waiting on. I have definitely been in my stand before on a 20-degree day and realized I forgot my heavy gloves… definitely will not do that twice!

6. Rangefinder

Now if you are bowhunting I will not even bother telling you about the importance of a rangefinder, that is a no brainer. However, if you are rifle hunting, a rangefinder can be more useful than you may think. In the early season, you probably did not have a chance to see your stand before the leaves fell and a rangefinder can give you the edge to know exactly how far away your shooting lanes are.

7. Haul Rope

A haul rope can be useful for many reasons but it is definitely always safer and easier to have a haul rope to get your gear in the stand.

David Blanton from Realtree Outdoors made an exceptional video about the correct way to climb you stand and use a haul rope effectively.

David Blanton, Realtree Outdoors

8. Rain cover

If your sitting in the stand all day, some sort of rain cover is a good thing to have. You could wear a waterproof outer layer, bring a poncho, or stand umbrella. Either way, covering up is key to staying dry and warm so you can make that perfect shot on a big buck.

9. Water Bladder

Any hunter will tell you that sitting all day in a tree stand is not an easy thing to do. Staying hydrated is an important aspect of any sport. A bottle can be quite noisy in the woods especially if you have to pull it out of a pack. Most well-made backpacks will have a built-in water bladder, and you can fit your own in most cheaper backpacks. Oh and do not worry about peeing in the woods, it has no adverse effects on your hunt.

RELATED POST: Top Five Deer Hunting Myths

10. Tree Hanger

I know you have been in a stand at least once without a hanger. You’re sitting there holding your pack between your feet facing constant scare/uncomfortable feeling that you may drop your pack, and you know what that means… no more Little Debbies. Let’s not chance it, use a hanger.

Big Whitetail Hunters LLC Coated Gear Hangers

11. Folding Saw

Bahco 396-LAP Laplander Folding Saw

A folding saw can almost be the same as your utility knife, but a folding saw can be much better to get through a larger tree or through the back end of a whitetail. I much rather pack the little extra weight of a saw than trying for 30 minutes to chop through a thick tree.

12. Mobile Battery Pack

Never be without a phone in the woods

Other than checking your virtual farm world while in the stand; having your phone is actually very important. You can use your phone for a few important things in the woods, such as reporting your harvest or texting your hunting buddy about lunch. Not to mention the safety factor of being able to communicate with your hunting buddies or the police in case of emergencies. So having a mobile charger in your pack is a definite no brainer.

13. Grunt Call

Grunt calls can be a game-changer during the rut. I know you have seen a buck mid-November on a fast trot not even thinking of stopping. A grunt call can be just the ticket! Gunts also work very well when there is a buck farther away from you. If he hears your gunt he will differently raise an ear in curiosity and if you’re good enough he will even come your way.

Photo from

14. Hand-Warmers

Seasoned hunters will tell you, having hand warmers can make or break your day. When the thermostat gets close to zero you definitely need to have hand warmers with you. Most of the time I put one in each glove, and one in each pant pocket to stay nice and warm.

15. Ozone Generator

Scent control is a major priority in hunting. I assume you are already using scent free body soap and laundry detergent for yourself and clothes. But now a new technology actually releases ozone to cover your scent and the nearby areas scent. The ozone breaks down scent on a molecular level so it is undetectable. This would be an added layer of protection for your scent game.

16. Basic First Aid

One of the most important pieces of gear for anyone who steps foot off the pavement, a solid first-aid kit is especially important for hunters. Whether you are heading into the backcountry for a multi-day hunt or simply hitting your favorite trails for the day while setting trail cams, a first-aid should always be in your backpack. Don’t think of the kit as a fixed item—the contents within your first-aid kit should change per trip… you’re going to want a beefier assortment for 11-day Dall sheep hunt in Alaska than you will for a simple morning in the tree stand five miles from home. You may choose to go with an ultralight kit to save weight and space or a broader selection if you are in hunting camp. Never assume the outfitter, your hunting buddy or someone else along the trail will have a medical kit—always be ready to take care of yourself.

FREE PDF DOWNLOAD – Wilderness First Aid Pocket Guide

FREE PDF DOWNLOAD – Wilderness First Aid Pocket Guide

17. Lighter/Matches

Even if you do not plan on staying in the woods, some items fall into the “rather have it and not need it than need it and not have it” category. If you’re on a camping hunt than you better make sure to pack a lighter or box of matches but if your just a hotel hunter(no shame) then they are probably not as important.

18. Shooting Sticks

Quik-Shot Predator Shooting Stick

On a hunt where you need to make a lot of miles and do not want to settle in one spot, a solid prop to shoot off can make or break that hunt that you have worked so hard for. Even if you are staying local, on the days where you just feel like walking instead of sitting, shooting sticks are a much better rest than a random tree or a freehanded shot. Shooting sticks come in many varieties, but the common denominator is that all sticks provide an added measure of stability in the field and can dramatically increase the effective range of any hunter when they’re used the right way.

19. Extra Sd Cards

I hope I am not the only one that goes to check my trail cams after hunting in a different spot and realize I forgot to bring extra cards… To combat this I started to just put a few extras in my pack that I do not plan to use. That way I actually forget to bring them I still have sd cards for my trail cameras.

Thanks for reading my article I hoped you enjoyed it and learned something you didn’t already know. If you like my content subscribe for my weekly update.

Can Whitetail Does Have Antlers?

Are antlered does real?

It seems that every year we get a few reports across the country of so-called “antlered does”. According to science, it is more likely that these deer being reported are actually hermaphrodites. They are two types of hermaphrodites,

  1. True hermaphrodite. This deer would have both male and female organs, but the male organs are faint and/or not outwardly identifiable.
  2. Pseudohermaphrodite (also know as cryptorchid). This deer would have internal male organs that would not be easily identifiable.

A true antlered doe will exhibit this kind of antler growth. The condition is extremely rare. Most reports of antlered does are more likely cases of hermaphrodism. Photo courtesy of Larry's Taxidermy of Ogdensburg, NY.
A true antlered doe will exhibit this kind of antler growth. The condition is extremely rare. (Photo: Larry’s Taxidermy of Ogdensburg, NY.)

Yes, they exist!

While actual antlered does are possible, they only grow small antlers and do not produce the testosterone needed to harden their antlers so they stay in velvet year round. The chance of a true antlered doe happening is a small 0.01%.

What does science say?

A group of scientists in Pennsylvania did a study on the 160,000 bucks registered between 1958 and 1961. While this population was only bucks hunters had killed and reported the percentage of antlered does is considerably less than recently said, I am sure this is because most antlered does are considerably smaller than actual bucks which makes them less attractive to hunters.

Here is the abstract of the study:

Forty-seven antlered female deer (Odocoileus virginianus borealis) were reported among 162,000 bucks killed during four hunting seasons in Pennsylvania, 1958-61. Their distribution in the state was not uniform. The viscera of 31 antlered does, so-called, were examined. Of these, 17 were functional females, 4 were males with undescended testes in the intra-abdominal fat, 1 was a hermaphrodite, 1 bore an adrenal-type tumor, and 8 others could not be classified with the material available. The antlers of 25 were in the velvet, while only 6 had polished antlers, normal among males at that season. The condition of the antlers when related to that of the internal organs correlated very well with the theory of antler growth as developed by the late George B. Wislocki and his associates, and now under investigation by R. J. Goss. The adrenal glands showed no consistent abnormalities.

Read the full report here

Hunters who shoot an 'antlered doe' likely have killed a hermaphrodite, which has ovaries and testes, neither of which would be noticeable to an untrained eye. The deer may appear to be female, but the branched (and sometimes hardened) antlers are an indication that it most likely not a true antlered doe.
Hunters who shoot an ‘antlered doe’ likely have killed a hermaphrodite, which has ovaries and testes, neither of which would be noticeable to an untrained eye.  (Credit: DDH)

Every now and again we will get a report of a rather large “antlered doe” such as this 220 lbs as we know this is not a true antlered doe but these false deer can be classified in these 5 categories.

  1. True hermaphrodite
  2. Pseudohermaphrodite
  3. Does with degenerated ovaries
  4. Does with diseased ovaries
  5. Deer with no recognizable pathology(extremely rare)


Thanks for reading my article I hoped you enjoyed it and learned something you didn’t already know. If you like my content subscribe for my weekly update.


Top 5 Deer Hunting Myths

 There are many misconceptions about deer and deer hunting throughout the country. Everyone believes that one crazy thing that an uncle or granddad told them, and you probably never thought twice to question it. Don’t worry, after some research I sadly realized I was also one of these gullible young hunters. Here are 5 quite popular deer hunting myths

1. Peeing in the woods

If you’re like me, you probably thought that peeing in the wood was a giant cardinal sin in the woods! However, peeing in the woods is absolutely fine and has zero negative effects. All urine turns in to ammonia within 20 minutes and the deer can’t even tell the difference between deer and human urine. Some hunters even admit to peeing in their own mock scrapes. This sounded crazy to me but hey now I don’t need to carry a pee bottle or hold it during all day hunts.

Did you know that peeing in the woods does not matter? Check out this and other debunked myths from Omega Outdoors.

2. Dry Does

Many people define a dry doe as a doe that hasn’t produced fawns this year. So many management hunts choose to take out these does not think about why she doesn’t have does. According to wildlife biologists a doe will always have fawns unless she is very unhealthy and dying. Although some does may have had fawns still, but they got lost or eaten. There are many reasons why a doe doesn’t have fawns around her so next time try not to judge your does so quickly.

3. Buck Always Bed Downwind of Does

There is a big misconception about bucks bedding downwind from does. While this may happen on the off chance bucks do not outgoingly try to do this. Imagine you’re a buck and you bed down and the wind changes every little while. are you really going to get up just to be behind the does? No you wouldnt, Neither will the bucks. If anything they will get up and move along.

4. Dew Claws In Tracks

So many nieve hunters say that when you can see the dew claws in a track that it is automatically a huge buck. Any deer can leave dew claw prints depending on how it stands, how fast they are going, or if they are scraping. There are many ways to tell the story of a track but remeber all deer have dew claws not just the giants!

Muddy Deer Track

5. Scent is not That Complicated

While dressing in scent free clothes and making sure you wash in scent free soap is important, many hunters are very paranoid about their scent. Placing your stand in the right spot and be virtually undetectable. Try to secluded, the higher ground you can get the better so try hunting a valley if your having trouble with scent.

Thanks for reading my article I hoped you enjoyed it and learned something you didn’t already know. If you like my content subscribe for my weekly update.